formats index
	*** GEOS VLIR (Variable Length Index Record)

** Document revision 1.1

  Later on in the life of the C64, an OS called GEOS came  out.  It  was  a
system much like the many windowing OS's (MAC OS, Windows) in that it  used
icons, windows, a mouse pointer and resource drivers. In order  to  contain
all the information needed for the windowing system (icon, window position,
creation time/date), a new filetype called  VLIR  was  needed.  While  GEOS
files might not be of interest to many of the emulator users, it is  likely
that these files will be  encountered,  and  knowledge  of  them  would  be
helpful.

  Each GEOS file or  application  is  comprised  of  many  separate  chains
(called RECORDS) for different sections of the app/file. Each RECORD can be
loaded in separately and overtop of other ones. Below  is  a  dump  of  the
first directory sector of the GEOS 2.0 disk. Note  the  first  entry  seems
normal enough, but the rest have additional  information  in  the  normally
unused section of the entry.

    00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F
    -----------------------------------------------
00: 12 04 82 13 00 47 45 4F 53 20 56 32 2E 30 20 45  <- Normal entry
10: 4E 47 4C 2E A0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 58 00
20: 00 00 83 02 02 44 45 53 4B 20 54 4F 50 A0 A0 A0  <- First GEOS file.
30: A0 A0 A0 A0 A0 02 0F 01 04 58 08 13 0D 23 78 00  <- Note extra info
40: 00 00 83 0B 13 43 4F 4D 4D 20 31 33 35 31 28 61     from offset $15 to
50: 29 A0 A0 A0 A0 08 0F 00 0A 58 05 09 15 24 03 00     $1D.
60: 00 00 83 0F 0D 4D 50 53 2D 38 30 31 A0 A0 A0 A0
70: A0 A0 A0 A0 A0 0F 05 00 09 56 07 19 01 00 04 00
80: 00 00 83 08 0D 43 4F 4E 46 49 47 55 52 45 A0 A0
90: A0 A0 A0 A0 A0 08 05 01 0E 58 05 1F 0B 31 4E 00
A0: 00 00 83 01 10 50 41 49 4E 54 20 44 52 49 56 45
B0: 52 53 A0 A0 A0 01 08 00 06 57 08 0C 0E 00 12 00
C0: 00 00 83 0B 05 70 72 65 66 65 72 65 6E 63 65 20
D0: 6D 67 72 A0 A0 0B 12 00 05 56 0A 09 13 2D 16 00
E0: 00 00 83 08 11 70 61 64 20 63 6F 6C 6F 72 20 6D
F0: 67 72 A0 A0 A0 08 07 00 05 58 05 19 0C 10 16 00

  Lets analyze the second entry to see whats all involved with GEOS  files.
Note, the offset values have been changed to 0 to make referencing easier.

00: 00 00 83 02 02 44 45 53 4B 20 54 4F 50 A0 A0 A0
10: A0 A0 A0 A0 A0 02 0F 01 04 58 08 13 0D 23 78 00

  Byte:   $02: C64 filetype (see the section on D64 for an explanation) REL
               files are not allowed.
        03-04: Starting track/sector (02/02 from above) of C64 file if GEOS
               filetype is $00. If GEOS filetype is non-zero,  track/sector
               of single-sector RECORD block
        05-14: Filename (in ASCII, padded with $A0, case varies)
        15-16: Track/sector location of info block
           17: GEOS file structure
                 $00 - Sequential
                  01 - VLIR file
           18: GEOS filetype
                 $00 - Non-GEOS (normal C64 file)
                  01 - BASIC
                  02 - Assembler
                  03 - Data file
                  04 - System File
                  05 - Desk Accessory
                  06 - Application
                  07 - Application Data (user-created documents)
                  08 - Font File
                  09 - Printer Driver
                  0A - Input Driver
                  0B - Disk Driver (or Disk Device)
                  0C - System Boot File
                  0D - Temporary
                  0E - Auto-Execute File
               0F-FF - Undefined
           19: Year (19xx)
           1A: Month (1-12)
           1B: Day (1-31)
           1C: Hour (0-23, military time)
           1D: Minute (0-59)
        1E-1F: Filesize, in sectors (low/high byte order)

  If the values at byte $18 is 00 then we have a  normal,  sequential,  C64
file, without an info block. If the value at byte  $18  is  anything  other
than 00, we have a GEOS file, be it VLIR or sequential, with an info block.

  The info block stores items like  the  ICON,  size,  load  address,  file
types, description, etc, and is always only 1 sector long. Since there is a
fixed space to store information, the ICON height, width and bitmap  length
must be the same. Here is a sample info block, and layout...

    00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F
    -----------------------------------------------
00: 00 FF 03 15 BF FF FF FF 92 49 01 FF FF 01 80 00
10: 1D BF FF DD A0 00 5D BF FF C1 A0 00 5D A1 C6 55
20: A0 29 5D A0 C9 41 A1 09 41 B9 D6 41 A8 00 41 BF
30: FF C1 80 00 1D 9C 00 15 9C 00 15 80 00 1D 80 00
40: 01 FF FF FF 83 04 01 56 19 55 19 75 51 64 65 73
50: 6B 54 6F 70 20 41 4D 20 20 56 32 2E 30 00 00 00
60: 00 50 65 74 65 72 20 53 63 68 65 70 65 72 73 00
70: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
80: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 4C 2A 5B 4C 59 5D 4C
90: A7 61 4C 3A 62 AD 8A 84 D0 01 60 20 7E 23 20 9C
A0: 55 73 65 20 74 68 65 20 64 65 73 6B 54 6F 70 20
B0: 74 6F 20 6D 61 6E 61 67 65 20 61 6E 64 20 6D 61
C0: 6E 69 70 75 6C 61 74 65 20 79 6F 75 72 20 66 69
D0: 6C 65 73 2E 00 03 20 E3 5C 68 85 FB 20 4F 61 20
E0: 13 61 20 32 61 20 F2 5C A9 0C 20 CC 49 A9 2E 85
F0: 13 A9 F9 85 12 A9 2F 85 15 A9 01 85 14 A9 84 85

  Byte: $00-01: Contains $00/$FF since its only 1 sector long
         02-04: Information sector ID bytes (03 15 BF). The "03" is  likely
                the bitmap width, and the "15" is likely the bitmap height,
                but rare exceptions do exist to this!
         05-43: Icon bitmap (sprite format, 63 bytes)
            44: C64 filetype (same as that from the directory entry)
            45: GEOS filetype (same as that from the directory entry)
            46: GEOS file structure (same as that from the dir entry)
         47-48: Program load address
         49-4A: Program end address (only with accessories)
         4B-4C: Program start address
         4D-60: Class text (terminated with a $00)
         61-74: Author (with application data: name  of  application  disk,
                terminated with a $00. This string may not  necessarily  be
                set, or it may contain invalid data)
                The following GEOS files have authors:
                  1 - BASIC
                  2 - Assembler
                  5 - Desk Accessory
                  6 - Application
                  9 - Printer Driver
                 10 - Input Driver
         75-88: If a document, the name of the application that created it.
         89-9F: Available for applications, unreserved.
         A0-FF: Description (terminated with a $00)

Note: all the text strings above are in ASCII, not PETASCII.

  If the file is a VLIR, then the RECORD block is of interest. This  single
sector is made up of up to 127 track/sector pointers, each of  which  point
to program sections (called RECORDS). VLIR files are comprised of  loadable
RECORDS (overlays, if you wish to use PC terminology). The first RECORD  is
what is always loaded first when you run that application. After that,  the
OS loads whatever RECORD it needs. Here is a partial sample of  the  RECORD
sector...

00: 00 FF 08 00 09 04 09 03 0A 0A 0B 11 0F 11 00 00
10: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
20: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

  Byte: $00-01: Contains 00/FF since its only 1 sector long
         02-03: Starting track/sector (8,0) for the first RECORD
         04-05: Starting track/sector (9,4) for the second RECORD
         06-07: Starting track/sector (9,3) for the third RECORD
         08-09: fourth RECORD (10/10)
         0A-0B: fifth RECORD (11/17)
         0C-0D: sixth RECORD (15/17)
         0E-0F: seventh RECORD (0/0)

  When a T/S link of $00/$00 is encountered, we  are  at  the  end  of  the
RECORD block. If the T/S  link  is  a  $00/$FF,  then  the  record  is  not
available.

  Note that if you add up the sectors so far, we have only  used  two,  one
for the INFO sector and one for the RECORD sector. Obviously there are more
used, and they are contained in the sector chains from the  RECORD  sector.
Each t/s link in the RECORD sector points to a chain of sectors, the length
of which is included in the  sector  count  for  the  GEOS  file.  Doing  a
VALIDATE on a GEOS disk when not in GEOS would de-allocate all these sector
chains (and the RECORD sector as well), which would not be good!

  There are also changes to the BAM sector from a normal D64 file.  Looking
at the D64 entry from before, we have all the normal information, plus  the
new information starting at $AB:

  Bytes:$00-01: Track/Sector location of the first directory sector (should
                be 18,1, but it doesn't seem to matter)
            02: Disk DOS version type
                  $41=1541
            03: $2A, DOS version.
         04-8F: BAM entries for each track, in groups  of  four  bytes  per
                track, starting on track 1
         90-9F: Disk Name (padded with $A0)
         A0-A1: Filled with $A0
         A2-A3: Disk ID
            A4: Usually $A0
         A5-A6: DOS type, usually "2A"
         A7-AA: Filled with $A0
         AB-AC: Border sector trk/ssec (*see below)
         AD-BC: GEOS ID string ("GEOS format V1.0", in ASCII)
         BD-DC: Unused (usually $00)
         DD-FF: Free sector info for tracks  36-70,  used  on  double-sided
                1571 disks only!

  If you want to check to see if a disk is formatted for  GEOS,  check  the
string in the BAM sector starting at $AD (offset 173) for the string  "GEOS
format". If it does not match, the disk is not in GEOS format. This is  the
way that GEOS itself verifies if a disk is GEOS formatted.

  Note: GEOS disks contain something called a "border sector" which is also
only one sector long, has the same layout as a normal directory sector, and
is used for copying files from one disk to another. When you need to copy a
file, you drag the icon to the bottom of the screen and the file  is  moved
from its normal location in the directory to the border sector. Since it is
only 1 sector, it can hold only 8 entries.

  On a D64/1541, here is how GEOS allocates blocks as it either saves files
or needs blocks for other purposes:

Saving files: When there's still at least one free  block  in  the  current
track, then the next block is searched for starting at the sector which  is
away from the current one by at least the soft interleave.  The  exceptions
are track 25 and  above  where  the  interleave  changes  to  the  original
interleave _minus one_.

When stepping to the next track, the sector where the  next  block  of  the
files is saved to is computed as following:

  New sector = (Next track - Previous Track) * 2 + 4 + Soft interleave

Getting the Border Sector: When allocating  the  GEOS  border  sector,  the
search starts upwards from sector 19/0 for a  free  sector  and  then  from
sector 1/0 if no free one has been found yet.

Getting the first sector for saving a file: Start searching from sector 1/0
and, on the first track that has  at  least  one  free  sector,  you  start
searching at the sector computed by the form above.


  Seeing as this is not an emulator format,  I  will  not  comment  on  its
relative merits. It is simply another C64 file type.