formats index
	*** DiskPacked ZipCode (4 or 5 file version, 1!xxxxxx, 2!xxxxxx, etc)

** Document revision 1.1

  This format works directly on D64 images only. It is a compressed form of
a 1541 disk (or a D64 file) and is typically comprised of 4 files for a  35
track disk. The 5-file version is for 40-track  images,  and  is  a  Joe
Forster/STA extension of the standard. This  form  of  the  ZipCode  format
can't be used to  store  disks  with  errors  on  them,  as  there  are  no
provisions for error bytes. It is strictly a compressed sector  copy  of  a
disk.

  The following chart shows the filenames, range of tracks  and  the  total
sectors that each one contains:

   FileName  Track Range  Block Count
   --------  -----------  -----------
   1!xxxxxx     1 - 8     168 sectors
   2!xxxxxx     9 - 16    168 sectors
   3!xxxxxx    17 - 25    172 sectors
   4!xxxxxx    26 - 35    175 sectors
   5!xxxxxx    36 - 40     85 sectors (valid only for 40 track disk images)

  This format uses sector interleaving to read  the  disk.  It  reads  each
sector using an interleave of -10 for even #'s sectors (0,2,4...)  and  +11
for odd numbered sectors (1,3,5...). The actual value for both  interleaves
varies as we progress further into the disk. At track 18, it goes to -9 for
evens and +10 for odds, and at track 25 it changes to -8 for evens  and  +9
for odds. This is important to better understand the layout,  as  it  means
the sectors  are  *not*  stored  in  order  (0,1,2...),  but  the  changing
interleave makes reading/writing the sectors much faster. This  also  means
that in order to reconstruct each track, a buffer of memory the size of the
largest track (track 1, 21 sectors*256 bytes = 5.25  kbytes)  must  be  set
aside, and the sector information copied into the  appropriate  area  until
the whole track is assembled.

Here is a partial HEX dump of the first file and description of the layout.

      00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F
      -----------------------------------------------
0000: FE 03 36 34 41 00 00 41 0B 00 41 01 00 41 0C 00
0010: 41 02 00 41 0D 00 41 03 00 41 0E 00 41 04 00 41
0020: 0F 00 41 05 00 41 10 00 41 06 00 81 11 33 02 00
0030: 2F 80 25 9D FA 66 AF 9B 6A 14 A0 E4 10 CA 18 90
0040: 7B 67 51 47 92 2B 4C 52 83 78 01 A9 58 D0 31 70
0050: 34 30 B7 85 2C D4 9F 1C 1F A9 EA EA EA 15 3E 02
0060: D0 00 41 07 00 41 12 00 41 08 00 41 13 00 41 09

  Byte: $00-01: Load address, low/high byte. If the load address  is  $03FE
                then we have the DISK ID following  immediately  after.  If
                it's $0400, then no DISK ID follows.
         02-03: Disk ID, only if the load address is $0400.

  From here on, the format can vary, depending  on  the  contents  of  each
sector. The next two bytes contain the track/sector, but  the  track  value
now includes the compression method, contained on the top two bits...

Bit: 76543210
     xxyyyyyy
     ^^|    |
     | ------
     |   ^
     |   |
     |   |
     |   These are the track bits.
     |
     These are the compression flags

  Since the track range is from 1-35, only the bottom 5 bit are used.  This
leaves the top two empty, and usable. Here is their usage:

   00 - No compression, the sector is stored in full. The  next  256  bytes
        contain the full sector information.
   01 - Sector is filled with *one* character. The next  character  is  the
        fill byte. Repeat it 256 times, and fill the sector.
   10 - Sector is compressed using RLE compression (see below for details)
   11 - Unused

  Lets look at each method of storing a sector with  different  compression
methods, using the above example...

  00: This is the simplest method, as it entails  no  compression.  All  we
      have is a track and sector value, and 256 bytes of data follow it.

  01: At byte 04 we have 41 00 00. Breaking down  $41  to  binary  we  have
      "01000001". The top two bits indicate we  have  type  01  compression
      (fill sector), and the bottom 6 indicate we have track  1.  The  next
      byte is the sector ($00), and the next byte is also a $00, indicating
      this sector is completely filled with $00.

      0000: .. .. .. .. 41 00 00 41 0B 00 41 01 00 41 0C 00
      0010: 41 02 00 41 0D 00 41 03 00 41 0E 00 41 04 00 41

  10: The RLE encoding takes some explanation. RLE stands for  "Run  Length
      Encoding", and is simply a means of encoding a  series  of  the  same
      numbers into a much smaller string (i.e.  encoding  the  1's  in  the
      string "0456111111111645" into something much shorter).

      Looking at the example below, when we encounter a "10" type, we  have
      track ($81, meaning track 1), sector ($11), the length of the encoded
      string $33 (51 decimal) and a REP code, a unique byte used as a  flag
      to show when we encounter an encoded repeated string. The REP code is
      a single byte whose value doesn't occur in the decoded sector. It  is
      typically the first unused value starting from 0, but in practice  it
      can be anything, it simply must be an unused value.

      0020: .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 81 11 33 02 00
      0030: 2F 80 25 9D FA 66 AF 9B 6A 14 A0 E4 10 CA 18 90
      0040: 7B 67 51 47 92 2B 4C 52 83 78 01 A9 58 D0 31 70
      0050: 34 30 B7 85 2C D4 9F 1C 1F A9 EA EA EA 15 3E 02
      0060: D0 00 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

      We know with this example that the encoded  data  is  51  bytes  long
      ($33), and with a REP code of $02, whenever we encounter  a  $02,  we
      have an encoded sequence. If we do  not  encounter  a  $02,  we  have
      normal bytes. In the above sequence, we do not encounter a $02  until
      $005F, so all the rest are normal bytes,  which  would  go  into  the
      sector starting at position $00.

      Once we hit a $02, the next two bytes are encoded this way...  repeat
      count ($D0, decimal 208) and byte to repeat ($00).  So  we  fill  the
      next 208 ($D0) bytes with $00's.

      If you add up what we had before the $02, it was 48 bytes  long,  add
      this to the 208 bytes and we have a  full  sector  of  256  bytes.  A
      256-byte sector stored in 55 (51 + 4 byte header) bytes represents  a
      good savings.

      Notice the byte sequence in the above example 'EA  EA  EA'.  Why  was
      this not encoded? Simple. The encoding sequence (REP,  LENGTH,  CHAR)
      takes three bytes. It would not make any sense  to  encode  something
      which is no shorter than  the  original  string.  ZipCode  will  only
      encode a repeated string of 4 bytes or longer.

      Now, lets break down the above sample into its encoded parts, to  see
      how its made...

      0000: FE 03          - Load Address
      0002: 36 34          - Disk ID
      0004: 41 00 00       - T/S 1,00, fill $00
      0007: 41 0B 00       - T/S 1,11, fill $00
      000A: 41 01 00       - T/S 1,01, fill $00
      000D: 41 0C 00       - T/S 1,12, fill $00
      0010: 41 02 00       - T/S 1,02, fill $00
      0013: 41 0D 00       - T/S 1,13, fill $00
      0016: 41 03 00       - T/S 1,03, fill $00
      0019: 41 0E 00       - T/S 1,14, fill $00
      001C: 41 04 00       - T/S 1,04, fill $00
      001F: 41 0F 00       - T/S 1,15, fill $00
      0022: 41 05 00       - T/S 1,05, fill $00
      0025: 41 10 00       - T/S 1,16, fill $00
      0028: 41 06 00       - T/S 1,06, fill $00
      002B: 81 11 33 02    - T/S 1,17, RLE, length 51 bytes, REP byte $02
            00 2F 80 25    - Normal data
            9D FA 66 AF
            9B 6A 14 A0
            E4 10 CA 18
            90 7B 67 51
            47 92 2B 4C
            52 83 78 01
            A9 58 D0 31
            70 34 30 B7
            85 2C D4 9F
            1C 1F A9 EA
            EA EA 15 3E
      005F: 02 D0 00       - REP byte found, repeat 208, fill with $00
      0062: 41 07 00       - T/S 1,07, fill $00
      0065: 41 12 00       - T/S 1,18, fill $00

  This listing is basically what you would see if you ran CheckZipCode from
inside 64COPY. It will dump out the ZipCode files  into  their  constituent
parts, so you can see how the file is made, and if any errors exist.

  The 4 and 5 file ZipCode format can't be used to store disks with  errors
on them, as there are no provisions for  error  bytes.  It  is  strictly  a
compressed sector copy of a disk.

  There is no benefit for using ZipCode as it is only used for making disks
easier to upload/download (for a BBS) or store. It is not a format that any
of the emulators use directly. You can find utilites for the PC to undo and
create the images, if you need to.