: All the C64 COMAL stuff I've got to hand , mostly in ZIPped LNX format - LYNX17 was used to create the LNX sections which were then PKZIP'd ,some archives are just ZIP'd ,there is a read me text file with info about some of what's available. these files are now on a new server 29/5/01
Chris Zamara, Technical Editor An Introduction to COMAL: Better than BASIC
This article is not a product review, but presents information about a product which we feel is significant to the Commodore community
What is COMAL? If you're a COMAL fan and drive around with an 'I speak COMAL' bumper
sticker, sorry for starting off with that question. But you see, COMAL isn't really
all that well known in North America yet, and many people just aren't sure. If you're
one of the un-COMAL-ized, you may be delighted by what you read here. This article
answers the What about COMAL and gives some programming examples just to give you
a flavour of the language. A complete COMAL programming tutorial is beyond the scope
of this article, but we hope to provide that kind of information in future articles.
COMAL (COMmon Algorithmic Language) is a programming language originally developed
in Denmark by Borge Christensen, and is currently in widespread use throughout Europe.
It is estimated that there are 100,000 COMAL users worldwide. The first version for
Commodore machines ran on the PET/CBM, and was a public domain program, distributed
in Canada by Commodore. The new C64 COMAL takes advantage of the 64's graphics and
has been expanded from the original PET version. You can get the C-64 COMAL 0.14
system from the COMAL users group USA (see their address at the end of this article) or make
a copy from someone who has it. You are encouraged to make copies of the COMAL system
disk for friends or club members, as long as no profits are made and you copy the
COMAL system disk unchanged.
COMAL has been described as a cross between BASIC and Pascal, with the good points
of both languages and the draw backs of neither. COMAL is as easy to use as BASIC,
requiring little overhead to perform simple programs, but it has the speed, control
structures and parameter-passing capabilities that BASIC lacks. It does have the powerful
structures found in Pascal, but is not as restrictive to the programmer and is simple
to use. As another bonus, it also contains the "turtle" graphics commands from LOGO.
If this article so far sounds like an endorsement of the COMAL programming language,
well so be it. Read on about the language's capabilities and you'll be able to judge
for yourself. .
There are two official versions of COMAL in widespread use right now. Version 0.14
runs from disk, and will leave your 64 with about 10K of free memory once the language
is loaded into memory. (See the Article "Is 10K Enough?" elsewhere in this issue.)
The disk version keeps all error messages on disk to save memory, so there is a slight
delay before an error message appears. The newest version of COMAL, called 2.00,
comes on a cartridge. The cartridge leaves about 30K of memory free for user programs,
runs about twice as fast, and error messages are now fetched instantly. The cartridge
also includes new features and commands not found in version 0.14. The points presented
below will generally refer to both versions, with exclusive 2.00 features noted in
COMAL is a cross between a compiler and interpreter, compiling each program line
as it is entered. That means that you'll be able to edit and run your programs in
the same kind of interactive environment that BASIC enjoys, but your programs will
run about 5 to 10 times faster. It also means that the compiler looks at each program line
right after you press RETURN, so you're informed of any syntax errors immediately.
This prevents dumb errors from sneaking into an obscure part of a program that will
only be executed, of course, when you're demonstrating it. If you enter a bad line, the computer
beeps, gives a VERY descriptive message, and positions the cursor at the point the
error occurred. Fixing the error or moving the cursor to another line will cause
the error message to go away and leave the screen EXACTLY the way it was before, as
if nothing had ever happened. This is good for the ego, since the computer is so
willing to forget your errors and reward your successes.
Programming in COMAL
Many of the actual keywords and functions in COMAL are the same as BASIC, so you
won't be totally alienated the first time you fire it up. You still get PEEK, POKE,
CHR$, INT, and a lot of
other common functions. What makes COMAL better than BASIC is the structure of the
language itself. The best thing is that you'll never need GOTOs again, and line numbers
have no significance outside of editing--HOORAY! You don't have to worry about indenting your control structures properly, either; COMAL does it for you. The structures
available are listed below:
The above control structures are what gives COMAL a superior operative environment
to BASIC. You never have to use con fusing branches to transfer control to different
sections of code, just use the control structures to create a conditional loop or
perform a series of instructions or procedures based on a condition. Procedures (explained
more later) are like super powerful subroutines, and let you break a problem into
simple, understandable modules. Any student of modern structured programming techniques
will appreciate COMAL's set-up, and anyone used to Commodore BASIC will be amazed
at how much simpler it is to program with an up-to-date, powerful language.
For...Next loops and assignment statements look different from BASIC, but if you
enter them in BASIC form, COMAL will automatically convert for you! Version 2.00
will also show all keywords in uppercase when you list the program, and user defined
procedures, functions and variables in lowercase.
Besides the structures above, there are other major improvements that COMAL has over
Commodore BASIC. For one, the use of long variable names, up to 78 characters long.
And all characters are recognized, so 'ACCOUNTS_RECEIVABLE' and 'ACCOUNTS_RECEIVED'
are two different variable names. (The underscore is a valid variable name character
in version 2.00 and is selected with the back-arrow key.) The other important characteristic
of COMAL is its use of procedures and functions.
COMAL Procedures and Functions
When you define a procedure, it's like making your own COMAL keyword, since you call
that procedure by just using its name, and passing as many parameters as that procedure
needs. For example, a COMAL procedure to draw a square of a given size at a certain angle might look like this:
FORi:=1 TO 4 DO
Now, to draw a square 25 units large at a 45 degree angle, you would just use the
The EXEC statement is optional, so the statement could simply be:
Want a nice design? No problem:
FOR n: = 1 to 50 DO
Once a procedure has been defined, you can use it from direct mode as well as program
mode. A procedure definition can be placed anywhere in a program, and will not be
executed unless called; it can't be 'fallen into' like BASIC subroutines. By building
a program out of procedures, your code suddenly becomes simpler to understand and easier
to de-bug. Further more, a procedure can be defined as 'CLOSED', meaning that all
variables defined within the procedure are local. With a closed procedure, you can
use any variable names you wish, such as '1', without caring whether it's been used elsewhere.
And in version 2.00, if you do wish to use a global variable within a procedure you
can bring it in via the IMPORT command. And of course, you don't have to worry about what line numbers a procedure uses--it's always called by name. Procedures can
be called from within other procedures, encouraging a "top down" programming technique,
where a problem is broken into lower and lower levels of detail.
Since parameters are passed to a procedure as it is called, the problem of having
to set up variables before calling a subroutine (like in BASIC) is eliminated. Entire
arrays can be passed to a procedure, simply by including the array name in the parameter list. Procedures are used just the same way that built-in COMAL procedures are,
making your subroutines into natural extensions of the language. In COMAL 2.00, Procedures
can even be EXTERNAL, meaning that the procedure definition is on disk, and is brought in when the program calls it. This allows you to maintain a library of procedures
on disk and use them from any program.
A few other notes about procedures. A procedure can be defined within another procedure,
making it local (not executable from the main program or any other procedure). Another
capability of procedures is that they can be used recursively, i.e. a procedure can call itself, using a new set of parameters each time it does. Using recursion
often produces a very elegant solution to a seemingly difficult problem, for example
drawing a binary tree or evaluating an expression.
Besides procedures, you can define your own functions in COMAL, which are used implicitly
just like the BASIC functions SIN or LEFT$. For example, you may want a function
to round any number to a given number of decimal places. Just define it like this:
Once this function definition has been included somewhere in your program (even at
the end where it doesn't get executed), you can use it just as you would a built-in
function, as in these examples:
amount: = round(cash,2)
PRINT " Time taken is approximately " ;round( minutes/60, 1 ); " seconds. "
answer: = round(answer,precision)
Functions, like procedures, may also be declared as CLOSED, and can be used recursively.
Features of C64 COMAL
Besides just the standard COMAL commands, version 0.14 and 2.00 have a whole array
of commands to handle graphics and sprites. The cartridge version 2.00 is a complete
implementation of COMAL-80, the current standard, but also contains extra commands
in the way of packages, which can be invoked with the command:
The concept of packages works well, since the standard COMAL Kernel can be kept machine
independent, and extra machine-dependent commands--such as those involving sound,
graphics and sprites--can be added at will. That way, you only have to bring in what
you need, and not use unnecessary processing time and memory. Some of the packages available
with the cartridge version are FONT, GRAPHICS, JOYSTICK, LIGHTPEN, SOUND, SPRITES,
SYSTEM and TURTLE. Each of these adds many powerful commands to the language, and
additional packages can be loaded from disk. You can even create your own packages,
customizing the language to your own needs; any package currently in USE will be
saved along with your program.
Both COMAL versions contain "turtle" commands such as those found in the language
LOGO. Turtle commands, combined with the procedure-oriented nature of COMAL, provide
a very easy method to draw incredibly complex patterns on the screen. You simply
move around a "turtle" (which appears as a triangle) by pointing him in the right direction
and moving him a number of units forward or backward. The main turtle commands are:
RIGHT and LEFT to turn the turtle a specified number of degrees; FORWARD and BACKWARD
to move the turtle a specified number of units; PENUP and PENDOWN to tell the turtle
whether or not to draw as it moves; PENCOLOR to select the drawing colour; and a
host of other commands to show or hide the turtle, change his size, move him to an
absolute position, find out his X and Y coordinates, fill in an area with a specified colour,
and others. There is also a windowing capability to draw only within a pre-defined
area or to scale the drawing area. The cartridge also contains some non-turtle graphics commands to draw arcs, circles, lines, and to retrieve information about current
graphics and turtle settings.
If you're used to drawing patterns with packages like Simon's BASIC or other graphics
utilities, turtle graphics are a real treat. Forget about calculating X,Y coordinates
using number crunching feats of math--just point the turtle in the direction you want and let him go. As an example, Listing 1 shows a COMAL procedure to draw an N-pointed
star given its size and the number of points the star has. (It works well with anything
but 6 points.) Note that the actual star-drawing takes place in only 4 lines, which just repeats the sequence FORWARD(size); RlGHT(angle) until all points are drawn.
Try doing that with a Cartesian-oriented graphics package! Furthermore, this procedure
will draw the star wherever the turtle happens to be at the current time, so another procedure which was drawing some thing else could just call STAR wherever a star
was needed in the picture. COMAL isn't just for drawing pictures, of course, but
graphic examples show the flexibility of the language, and are certainly fun to write
The COMAL cartridge includes commands to control sound, sprites, character fonts,
joysticks, paddles, and a lightpen. But it is important to note that the COMAL system
isn't just a different language for your C-64, it is an entirely new environment,
replacing the 64's ROM set completely and turning the computer into a dedicated COMAL machine.
The new environment is familiar, but contains features which help when editing. For
one thing, the function keys are set up to generate oft-used commands such as LIST, RUN, TEXTSCREEN, SPLITSCREEN, FULLSCREEN, etc. (TEXTSCREEN and FULLSCREEN select
either text or hi-res screen displays. The SPLITSCREEN com mand displays the hi-res
graphics screen while setting a window of five text lines at the top of the screen.
This text window can be positioned anywhere on the full text screen with the cursor up/down
keys.) The function keys can also be re-defined as any string of text you wish. The
cartridge provides a slew of other key-driven functions via control-key
COMAL has hundreds of features not found in BASIC, too many to list in this article.
Things like a built-in string search command, no garbage collection delays, a PRINT
USING command for formatted output, a ZONE command to set up tab fields, and dozens
of little niceties that there isn't space to mention. At this point though, perhaps
you have an idea of the scope and power of the COMAL system, and you can see why
many who use it turn into big COMAL fans. Like the ones with the bumper stickers.
There are quite a few books on COMAL, both texts and reference. There are also disks
available from the COMAL users group packed with programs. The disks are under $10.00
each and there are over 2000 programs on 40 disks available by now. The COMAL users
group USA publishes the magazine COMAL Today, which is filled with news, programs,
and little tidbits about COMAL. A subscription to COMAL Today also gives you discounts
on books and club disks. If you're interested in learning more about COMAL or wish
to start using your COMAL system, a list of good references appear at the end of this
article. Reviews of all of these books appeared in COMAL Today #7. These publications,
the COMAL 0.14 system, or the cartridge are all available from The COMAL users group,
USA. Several packages including COMAL, books and programs are also available. For
more information, contact:
COMAL USERS GROUP, U.S.A.,
COMAL Book List
"COMAL From A to Z"
Borge Christensen - A reference of all COMAL commands; 64 pages
Gordon Shigley -
An exercise text for beginners; 69 pages
"COMAL Library of Functions and Procedures"
Kevin Quiggle -
Reference guide for the included disk; 71 pages
"COMAL 2.0 Packages"
Jesse Knight -
How to add your own ML packages to COMAL; 108 pages
Borge Christensen -
Informal introduction to COMAL by its creator; 333 pages
"Captain Comal's Graphics Primer"
Mindy Skelton -
COMAL graphics and sprites for beginners; 84 pages
"Cartridge Graphics and Sound" Captain Comal's Friends - Tutorial and reference for
2.0 extra package commands; 64 pages
"Commodore 64 graphics with COMAL" Len Lindsay - Complete organized reference for
COMAL graphics commands; 170 pages
"Foundations in Computer Studies with COMAL"
John Kelly -
Programming textbook using COMAL; 363 pages
"Captain Comal Gets Organized"
Len Lindsay -
Writing a disk management system in COMAL, disk included; 102 pages
"Structured Programming with COMAL"
Roy Atherton -
How to write structured COMAL programs; 266 pages
"Cartridge Tutorial Binder"
Frank Bason & Leo Hojsholt-Poulson -
A tutorial specifically for the C64 COMAL 2.0 cartridge; 320 pages
"The COMAL handbook"
Len Lindsay - The
COMAL reference source, giving syntax and sample usage of all standard COMAL-80 commands
COMAL program to draw an N-pointed star -note how COMAL indents the control structures.
// " STAR " - this is a sample COMAL
// program to draw a star of any
// number of points.
// * transactor magazine 1985 -cz
PRINT " " 147" ", size: = 100
PRINT " " 19" ",
INPUT " number of points? ": points
clear xstart: = INT(160-size/2)
ystart: = INT(1 00-size/2)
//** draw an N-pointed star **
// first calculate the angle to
// turn at each point
CASE (points MOD 4) OF
angvar: = points
angvar: = points/2
angvar: = points*2
angle: = 1 80-360/angvar
// now draw the star
FOR i: = 1 TO points DO